2017-07-09

Common Ringed Plovers from south to north (2:2)


The field station with the lake Latnjajaure in the background, still covered with ice and snow.
Loading up a helicopter with three weeks worth of supply and field equipment is always exiting. Loading one that it’s heading to a place where data loggers sitting on Common Ringed Plovers is even more exiting. Except for my self three other people were preparing for getting up to Latnjajaure (jaure means lake in Sami) in Abisko, working with everything from plant phenology to gas emissions in post-permafrost sites. With the mountains in our bearing we took off from the helipad in Abisko on the 14th of June.

A newly ringed Common Ringed Plover with an activity logger visible on the back.

The reason for my stay was to catch Common Ringed Plovers. As mentioned above to retrieve geolocators, but also deploy new ones. In an earlier blog post from June 13th I mentioned that this year I use activity loggers. This gives the opportunity to in better detail describe a number of aspects of flight performance in the Common Ringed Plover, such as duration of individual flight bouts and the number of flights and consecutive stop-overs. The overall aim is to compare these aspects between populations migrating different distances and breeding/wintering in different climate zones. The population this field trip is aimed for breeds close to one of the Abisko Scientific Research Stations/Swedish Polar Research Secretariat’s field station in Latnjavaggi (vaggí means valley) approximately 15 km west of Abisko. 

A Common Ringed Plover nest beautifully placed among flowering Alpine Azela (krypljung) and Dwarf Willow (dvärgvide).
Despite the present warm weather down in Abisko there was as usually much snow left up around the lake. This year was particularly late and much of the previous breeding sites were covered with snow. During the first days I was somewhat worried that the plovers had given up the site already in the beginning of June, when they usually arrive. The only two individuals observed during the first two days were one unmarked (new) and an old friend who has had a territory close to the field station for the three subsequent years. However, this season he ended up alone.  Slowly however, more individuals showed up. One male I was very exited to see again. Also he has kept his territory since the beginning of the project in 2014. What makes him extra special is that he used the same exact nest scrape for three years in a row. This year there was a new scrape, but located only ten meters from the previous one.

Measuring the wing area, one of the many measurements taken.
The first bird was caught short after incubation had started. Following that most birds in the valley where caught except for the lonely male. Right after midsummer several waders were seen on the lakeshore. Among them the first Ruffs ever observed in Latnjajaure, a small flock of Common Ringed Plover and the first Dotterel for the season. This individual came flying on high altitude through the valley. That behaviour together with the flocking behaviour of the plovers made me draw the conclusion that these were failed breeders moving towards initial staging areas.

Not long before the first helicopter back to Abisko was going I stumbled upon a new nest. It turned out that both the male and the female was ringed and logger at a previous year. The female carried a logger that were deployed in 2015, which means that it could potentially contain data from two consecutive years! Due to these and a couple of days of bad weather, which did not give any opportunity for trapping, I missed the helicopter. 
 
Bad weather in the summer could mean snow in the mountains.
After a couple of trapping attempts a few days later I managed to retrieve both loggers. After making sure, to the best of my ability, that there was no more breeding pairs I hiked back to Abisko with a total of four geolocators to be analysed when coming back to Lund.

The fantastic bird life in the area is not the only thing that amazes. This is a Diapensia lapponica, a resistant pincushon plant that each year survives thick snow cover, freezing and thawing during the flowering period, and trample by reindeers. This particular clone is a real champion since it is, judged by the size, about 800 years old. Maybe it started its life during Marco Polo adventures in eastern Asia?

 Amazing morning at Torneträsk, in Abisko, after coming down from Latnjajaure.


/Linus Hedh
2017-07-06

2017-06-29

Visiting the Caspian Terns of Ostrobothnia

The end of May is high time for incubation amongst the Caspian Terns of the Baltic. So with this knowledge in hand I headed for Ostrobothnia, to the Kristinestad archipelago to meet up with the resident tern expert and collaborator, Patrik Byholm. This archipelago has a markedly high density of breeding Caspian terns with a colony of about 70 breeding pairs and some 25 solitary breeding pairs in the area.
The Kristinestad archipelago boasts a nice diversity of the classic Baltic seabirds such as Common Eiders, Ruddy Turnstones, and White-tailed Eagles as well as healthy contingency of the ever-charismatic Little Gull
The goal of the trip was to catch adult terns for the attachment of GPS-GSM loggers for revealing migration and habitat use movements. To begin the season we had 4 birds with working tags returning and setting up their breeding attempts, each on their respective islands. So our task was to catch the un-tagged partners of these tagged individuals to be able to then later tag the young as well to hopefully get the successful migratory movements of an entire family group. Exciting stuff, but first things first we had to catch the un-tagged partners. To our good fortune a newly formed pair of terns just so happened to be two birds that were already tagged! Two-birds-one-stone kind of luck!

Ingströmsberget; a rather typical breeding island for a solitary pair of Caspian Terns. Other inhabitants include Great Black-backed Gulls, and Barnacle Geese.
The first day out was an unequivocal success, with both the un-marked adults being captured and tagged. This was a relief as capturing the right individual on the first attempt greatly reduces the stress for all parties involved.

Patrik releases our first individual Caspian Tern of the season, complete with a new GSM backpack.
Not all days are made for sea-faring! This is especially true when the work involves landing on exposed islands in high winds. So our off days were spent in the forest checking a collection of pygmy-owl boxes that Patrik had set up back when he was still in high school. This provided a wonderful opportunity to take full advantage of my time and build a broad perspective the bird life of the region, from the eider of the outermost islands, to the red-breasted flycatcher of the innermost forest patches. A welcomed contrast!
A partial clutch of few day old pygmy owl nestlings. The large feathers are leftovers from avian prey brought back to the nest by the male. These end up becoming insulating nest-lining!)

When the sun returned, as did we to the sea. We continued surveying islands for possible Caspian Tern breeding activity and also set up a remote camera on the colony island of Gubbstenen. These cameras allow for remote re-sighting of ringed adults breeding on the colony, as well as identification of predation events by eagles, ravens and the like.

The remote camera gets settled in amongst the breeding terns of the Gubbstenen colony.
In the last few days of my time in the archipelago we had 2 loggers left to deploy so we decided to try and capture a new pair. We identified an apparently solitary breeding pair on an island that seemed to lend itself to expedient trapping. So we gave it a shot. The first day went without a hitch, with the target bird captured and the tag deployed. Thereafter the pair was given a days rest so as to avoid disturbing their incubation too much. Upon our subsequent return to the island we realized that the pair was in fact not alone on the island but that two other pairs had set up shop and laid eggs! It had become a veritable mini-colony. With the title of ‘solitary pair’ defenestrated, we decided the information would be of no less value and went ahead and captured the remaining partner of the original pair.
A GPS-GSM logger that will communicate with the cellular network to provide information on the birds whereabouts is looped around bird’s legs and loose ends are sewed up for secure fitting.

With all GPS-units deployed and many amazing birds and environments observed I hopped on the ferry back to Sweden, where other tern-inhabited archipelagos beckoned!

Baltic glory


- Martin Beal

2017-06-26

A flying start on the nightjar field season may help us learn how much nightjars fly


You know the frustrating feeling when you have a dense swarm of gnats around your head, biting wherever they find an opening when you lower your guard for just a moment. That is in fact a positive feeling if you are about to catch some nightjars because a lot of gnats usually means that the nightjars will be active and hence a lot easier to catch. So, it was with rather high hopes we set out into the warm early summer night for our first trapping effort for the season at my field site. 

Urban Rundström with whom I trap nightjars has been spending (almost) every available summer night catching and ringing nightjars in eastern Småland since 2010 and just the other day he manage to ring nightjar number 600 in his project, which is pretty amazing when comparing to the approximately 1200 nightjars ringed in Sweden during the first century of bird ringing! For the tracking project we have focused on an about 50 km2 square of forest squeezed in between relatively large areas of agricultural land, the river Emån and the Baltic Sea. The area is rich in nightjars and it is heavily managed which enable relatively easy access to most territory-holding birds with a regular car. 

The night turned out to very successful, just as the gnats had indicated, and in the first morning light we could note that our efforts had resulted in 11 trapped birds! One of those was an old acquaintance that we met for the first time back in 2013. Then he was a young male born the year before. We have caught him every year since, more or less in the same spot. This year he had carried a miniature data logger that regularly is sampling and logging his flight activity throughout the annual cycle. With his contribution we hope to learn more about the daily and annually flight activity in this cryptic long-distant avian migrant.
 /Gabriel

2017-06-13

Common Ringed Plovers from south to north (1:2)



A full clutch of Common Ringed Plover eggs with the lighthouse Långe Jan in the background.
For the fifth year in a row the Common Ringed Plovers breeding in Ottenby, on the island of Öland, have been visited to retrieve and deploy geolocators. The aim for this study is to track the annual cycle of this population and compare to other populations breeding and wintering in different climate regimes. This gives the possibility to see where they spend the winter and stop overs during migration, as well as annual timing of the annual cycle. New for this year’s field season is the deployment of activity loggers. These will indicate when the birds fly or rest, and thus give higher resolution data of how many and how long in time the flights during migration are.

The first individuals in Ottenby where observed in late February. Since they are colour marked they are easy to spot in the field and several observations where reported to me by local bird watchers. A couple of days later I went there to count how many of the arrived individuals had returned from previous years. At this point there were still snow on the ground and the temperature was bellow zero. Nevertheless, about 25 plovers where present and about 15 of these where colour marked. Additionally, I was very happy to see that several of these were carrying geolocators, as well as two of four individuals that where equipped with activity loggers as a test last year. Now the long waiting started. Waders are, during breeding season, easiest to catch while incubating their eggs, which do not start until mid April in Ottenby.

The field site in beginning of April.
In mid April I returned to look for the first nest. However, the temperature was still low and most birds where still courtshiping and digging out nest scrapes, which is done by leaning their chest against the ground and move forward by pushing of with their legs. A procedure that make one think about penguins sliding on their belly across the ice. No luck this time. The following week however, the first nests were found and it did not take long to catch the first birds, but none of the individuals with loggers from previous years. Which of course are the gems in this case. 

Female Common Ringed Plover ringed, sampled, logged and finally photo documented in Ottenby Bird Observatory’s photo lab. Photo: Ottenby Bird Observatory


The loggers are attached with leg-loop harnesses so that the logger itself sits like a little backpack. Photo: Ottenby Bird Observatory
In mid May the breeding season should have progressed into the later stages of incubation and the field site should be filled with incubating waders. But the temperatures were still low.  When I walked out of the car in on May 11 I expected to feel the spring. Instead a cool wind pierced through and the thermometer said 5°C. This was true for many other places as well. There were still some new nest found and the first geolocator were retrieved on the May 12. The day after that the first activity logger was caught back, which was over all expectations since only four of these had been deployed in 2016.  

The first activity logger to be retrieved from a small shorebird.

It was not until the week after the site got littered with nests. Not only by Common Ringed Plovers, but Redshanks, Oystercatchers, Arctic- and Little Terns too. There were also a lot of migrants, like Red Knots and Dunlins, stopping over on their way to the Arctic tundra. Also, some days the sky was filled with Brent geese migrating towards north-east. One of the biggest highlights however, was to see two pairs of Ruddy Turnstones patrolling and displaying on the meadows. Likely they will breed, something that does not occur every year in Ottenby. It is truly a privilege to see all these birds while carrying out work. In the end 7 loggers were brought back to Lund and two of these were activity loggers. These will shed new light on flight performance in waders, since these are, to our knowledge, the first time this kind of measurement have been retrieved in this group of birds.

A bownet is being set up over a plover nest. Photo: Marcus Danielsson

Now I am setting of to follow the spring to more northerly latitudes, namely Abisko, to give the plovers there a visit. 

 //Linus Hedh

2017-05-30

Great field work challenges for Great Snipe researchers



For the ninth consecutive season we visited Storulvån in Jämtland, central Sweden, to study Great Snipes. As in previous years, our team consisted of people from Handöl (the local village), Lund, Uppsala, Stockholm, the Netherlands and Poland. The goal for this season was to retrieve some of the 20 accelerometers that we put on birds in 2016.

It was a season filled with greater challenges than normal. In April, a month before departure, we learned that the bridge over river Handöl had been torn to pieces earlier the same winter by moving ice. This bridge is crucial to us for reaching some key leks in the area.

After weeks of discussing alternatives to reach the remote leks, including the use of helicopter or snowmobiles, or even a skiing expedition over the mountains, we finally found a decent solution. By the local sami village we were granted access to an otherwise closed dirt-road by which it is possible to reach the most distant leks. This gave us the possibility to use a four-wheel motorbike for transport, snow conditions permitting. Motorized support was in practice a prerequisite, because the distance via this road to the furthest lek is 17 km (one way).

The next challenge would be the snow conditions. The combination of an unusually snow-rich winter, and a very late spring, resulted in “a lot of snow” waiting for us. As if this was not enough, the weather forecast suggested five days of more or less continuous rain.

Indeed, the first two evenings in the field gave us a combination of the strongest snow cover so far and on top of that, wind, rain and fog. Luckily our local team member had secured a set of snow shows from the tourist station, which significantly facilitated the walks to the first leks.


After the first two evenings, our wet, cold and slightly troubled moods were raised significantly by the recapture of two birds wearing accelerometers.



The third day the weather had improved, and we decided to have a go at the most distant leks, via the dirt road. In the early afternoon, Peter, our local team member, took us by four-wheel bike on the dirt road for six kilometers. After that the road was blocked by snow and ice. This meant that we needed to walk the remaining distance…




 

In mild and still weather, and a blazing sun, one team of three persons walked in snow shoes the 7 km to Laptentjakk. After a steep climb up the mountain side, six mistnets were raised and nine birds trapped, of which two carried accelerometers! After a very tiring walk back they reached the meeting point for the four-wheel bike at 6 am. For some in the team it was by far the toughest walk in the nine years of the project. This was dwarfed, however, by the team of four who walked 11 km one way to Tjallingen, trapped 30 birds including one with accelerometer, and finalized  their 23 km walk already at 6.30 am! After another four-wheel ride back, we all gathered at the field station at 8 am for breakfast.

With all the focal leks visited, five accelerometers retrieved, and 29 out 30 new accelerometers attached, we felt that the season had definitely been a success - despite all the initial problems and worries. However, there was one more night available for trapping, and we decided to try the nearest lek again. The first evening we had seen two birds with accelerometers there, but only trapped one. The activity level of Great Snipes this evening was very low but we managed to trap one single bird – a bird with an accelerometer!


Just what we wanted and needed! After removing the old accelerometer and attaching the 30th accelerometer for this season, we took the nets down early and returned to the bird station. Very tired, very happy! Now we are eagerly waiting for the exciting information the accelerometers may carry…

//Åke Lindström


2017-05-24

All you want no know about Daphnias's behaviour in the field


The field season is now open for catching the little zooplankton animals!

Yongcui Sha and myself are collecting Daphnia magna in diverse aquatic systems in West Skåne. Combining biomolecular and nanoparticle tracking techniques, we want to investigate the intra- and inter- behavioral variability of Daphnia magna individuals collected from natural populations, as inferred from their population genetic structure and their swimming patterns under natural environmental stressors such as UV and predation.


Now we are looking forward to further understand how Daphniids are happily living outside of the lab!

//Sylvie Tesson

2016-11-15

Along the longest of ways. Tracking 10 gram songbirds from eastern Siberia to southern Africa



Adult male willow warbler
Willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is the most common breeding bird species in Sweden. Globally its distribution range spans from coast of Atlantic to Pacific ocean. Species is currently split in three subspecies mainly due to differences in migration behaviour. North Scandinavian P. t. acredula migrates SSW to east Africa, central European/southern Scandinavian P. t. trochilus migrates SSE to western Africa. Far NE P. t. yakutensis hypothetically migrate SWS to southern Africa. This might be longest passerine migration on planet.
 
Me in the field with freshly caught dusky warbler female (Phyllsocopus fuscatus)
June and July this summer I spent on expedition to Chaun field station in arctic Russia (68.81 N, 170.62 E). I collected blood and feather samples as well as morphological measurements, phenotype data and some ecological information (clutch size, phenology, breeding density) of P.t.yakutensis breeding there. Importantly I fitted 28 geolocators on adult male willow warblers who were breeding in Chaun delta. Next year I will return to very same study site and try to find returning birds and hopefully document this remarkable migratory trip. Many thanks to Prof. Staffan Bensch, Prof, Susanne Åkesson and Dr Diana Solovyeva for making this project possible.


Researchers and students at Chaun field station, summer 2016. From Left to right: Ksenija Alehina, Anastasija Mylnikova, Carly Stransky, Darya Barykina , Tatjana Stepanova, Dr. Diana Solovyeva (director of the station), Prof. Chao Lei, Gleb Danilovich, Kristaps Sokolovskis, Dr. Sergey Vartanyan, Nikolai Lane

 

Typical willow warbler breeding habitat in Chaun river delta.

Comparison of willow warbler subspecies. From left to right: yakutensis, acredula, acredula and trochilus hybrid, trochilus. Yakutensis is alive and was gently placed on back to take this picture before reliesing. Others are stuffed dummies used as reference specimens to score phenotype.

Adult male willow warbler with geolocator
//Kristaps Sokolovskis